Regardless of size, police forces are generally organized as a hierarchy with multiple ranks. He argues the progressive and democratic ethos of shared governance inherent in community policing runs counter to central elements in police culture and more widespread understandings of crime and punishment.
Royal assent to the Metropolitan Police Act was given  and the Metropolitan Police Service was established on September 29, in London as the first modern and professional police force in the world.
In some cases, police are assigned to work " undercover ", where they conceal their police identity to investigate crimes, such as organized crime or narcotics crime, that are unsolvable by other means.
OhioMichigan v. Some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives.
In some forces, such as the New York Police Department and Philadelphia Police Departmenta regular detective holds a higher rank than a regular police officer. Another drawback of a system of accountability to local government is that the narrow relationship between the police and their political overseers may facilitate the corruption of both parties.
In the United States, there is high variation within the country itself.