Impact of obesity
In the former category are the social disabilities resulting from the stigma associated with obesity, sleep apnea that results in part from increased parapharyngeal fat deposits, and osteoarthritis resulting from the wear and tear on joints from carrying an increased mass of fat.
Although this study does not estimate the fraction of these diabetes costs that are attributable to obesity, other evidence suggests it may be substantial see above.
Long term effects of obesity
Diseases associated with increased fat mass Psychosocial function. Sabia notes that while the size of the weight gains discussed is large, even a 0. Obesity increases your risk of heart failure. Transportation costs In addition to its impact on medical spending and productivity, obesity may affect transportation costs. Overweight subjects with obstructive sleep apnea show a number of significant differences from overweight subjects without sleep apnea. Morton explains how wide-ranging the effects of obesity are. Stretch marks, or striae, are common and reflect the pressures on the skin from expanding lobular deposits of fat. Using employee compensation data, along with information on clinical events related to obesity, diabetes, and CHD, the authors estimate indirect costs due to work absence or reduced work. Obese white females had a 0.
Although more comprehensive analysis of costs is needed, substantial economic impacts of obesity are identified in all four categories by existing research. Criteria for the metabolic syndrome1 Risk factor. Stretch marks, or striae, are common and reflect the pressures on the skin from expanding lobular deposits of fat.
Mental effects of obesity
This approach allows for direct study of individual medical histories and charged costs with no aggregation, but relies on self-report for BMI and other initial data. This type of diabetes usually begins in adulthood but, is now actually occurring in children. Joint replacement surgery, while commonly performed on damaged joints, may not be an advisable option for an obese person because the artificial joint has a higher risk of loosening and causing further damage. The literature in this area includes analyses of the aggregate productivity loss due to obesity, as well as estimates for several distinct sub-categories of productivity costs. Although more comprehensive analysis of costs is needed, substantial economic impacts of obesity are identified in all four categories by existing research. Direct costs include those discussed in the first section of this paper, while indirect costs focus on premature mortality, higher disability insurance premiums, and labor market productivity. In addition to educational attainment and grade progression, obesity has also been shown to correlate with school attendance. Pathology of excess fat Each disease whose risk is increased by overweight can be classified into one of two pathophysiological categories. Among the Pima Indians, body weight steadily and slowly increased by 30 kg from 60 to 90 kg in the years preceding the diagnosis of diabetes As body mass index BMI increases, so does your risk of cancer and death from cancer. Thompson et al sorted subjects into three categories — healthy, overweight, and obese — according to initial BMI. This blockage causes apnea, which means a person stops breathing for a time. As also found by Frone, 26 this effect appears to be largely driven by the higher propensity of obese workers to have co-occurring conditions. Total indirect costs Several papers have estimated the total economic cost of obesity, differentiating only between direct and indirect costs.
If you are obese, or have one or more risk factors for obesity, our physicians can help. Weight gain appears to precede the onset of diabetes.
Lifetime risk of CHD is Self-esteem and intelligence were also measured at baseline. Numerous studies estimate these costs, using a variety of methodologies including: cohort studies, case studies, dynamic models, nationwide representative surveys, regression analyses, and simulation forecasting.
based on 81 review