Genetically informative research, including twin studiessuggest that heritability and environmental factors both influence all five factors to the same degree.
According to this hypothesis, the task of the personality psychologist is to cull the essential traits of personality from the thousands of adjectives found in language that distinguish people according to their behavioral dispositions. Costa Jr. The research done on personality also mirrors previous results on locus of control.
Odbert put Sir Francis Galton's hypothesis into practice by extracting 4, adjectives which they believed were descriptive of observable and relatively permanent traits from the dictionaries at that time. Social psychologists like Mischel argued that attitudes and behavior were not stable, but varied with the situation.
The sanguine type is most closely related to emotional stability and extraversion, the phlegmatic type is also stable but introverted, the choleric type is unstable and extraverted, and the melancholic type is unstable and introverted.
A plausible explanation for this is that acts by women in individualistic, egalitarian countries are more likely to be attributed to their personality, rather than being attributed to ascribed gender roles within collectivist, traditional countries.
People who are low in extraversion or introverted tend to be more reserved and have less energy to expend in social settings. DeYoung et al.
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